In the process of creating a theory of translation, very often a considerable number of false and misleading concepts are accepted and believed. These, in turn, create various problems for studies focusing on inter language communication. The first is the concept of translation being a science. The second is the hypothesis that translation is dependent on the theoretical knowledge of a language.
The primary reason for not being able to formulate an acceptable theory of translation is that translation actually takes place inside an individual’s brain. Hence pin pointing as to what exactly happens during translation is difficult. Despite various crucial processing of basic principles and methods of translation, till date there isn’t a single full scale theory of translation. As a matter of fact, in a way, it is almost aberrant to propose theories of translation since everything that has been achieved so far is merely very careful and insightful observations.
Thus, instead of trying to approach towards a theory of translation, it would be better to discuss the numerous paths people take to perform translations. These ways that people use for inter language communication and translation can be categorised, five of which are as follows: philological perspectives, philosophical perspectives, linguistic perspectives, socio-linguistic perspectives and communicative perspectives.
Philological Perspectives: This theory basically relies on philology for studying the development and improvement of language along with classical literature studies. Philology is the division of language that deals with the structure of language, its historical development and the status of the language or more than one language. The main focus is on the comparison of the structures of the native language with foreign languages.
Philosophical Perspectives: This theory lays emphasis on the intellectual as well as psychological aspects of the translator’s mind. George Steiner in his book After Babel, which was written in 1957, explains it as an investigation into what understanding a part or piece of verbal speech or a written text or intercept actually signifies. It is used to explain the process of literary translation.
Linguistic Perspectives: Under linguistic perspectives of translation, comparisons between the linguistic components of the source language and the target language are made rather than the literary genre and style features as is done in the philological perspectives. It is considered the most trustworthy translation theory as it contains constituents which are directly derived from the source language, thereby, eliminating the chances of loss of essence of the original text.
Socio-linguistic Perspectives: This theory aims at linking translation to two theories of information and communication with a special stress on the role of the listener in the process of translation. Language structures are not ignored under this theory. Rather they are dealt with according to their role in the communication process.
Communicative Perspectives: This theory is centred on creativity and is specifically used in literary translation, which is basically an artful communication between the person doing the translation and the person who is getting the translated text. It is more of a dynamic translation than a static one which agrees more with the target reader’s language system
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